We replicated the studies of O'' Donnell and O'' Donnell (1978) and Lovdal (1989) to analyze trends in gender representation in television commercials.A total of 757 commercials in Spring 1998 were recorded and analyzed for type of product, gender of the product representative, and gender of the voice-over.
Findings also revealed a decrease in the percentage of male voice-overs from about 90% to 71%.
ABSTRACT: Why did different agencies, promoting diverse products, create three ads featuring violence perpetrated by women on their rather immature and submissive male partners in order to sell their products?
I posit that the female viewers connect subconsciously with the image of the proactive female protagonists through the psychological mechanism in which we identify with ‘our like’ on the screen.
This, in turn, allows for the projection of ‘common ground’, a positive politeness strategy, to favourably dispose the female audience towards the protagonists and, by extension, the products advertised.
The success of these ads depends on women viewers identifying with the apparently dominant female protagonists – a case of ‘gender stereotype reversal’.
However, I put forward that through the violent modification of their partners’ behaviour, the women become responsible for them, and so the ads convey the common gender stereotype of women as carers.
ABSTRACT: The role of media in collective action repertoires has been extensively studied, but media as an agent of socialization in social movement identity is less understood.
It could be that social movement media is normalizing a particular activist identity to the exclusion of other demographics.
For instance, Harper has identified white-centrism in anti-speciesist media produced by the Nonhuman Animal rights movement and supposes that this lack of diversity stunts movement potential.