The CISS maintains separate games for deaf athletes based on their numbers, their special communication needs on the sports field, and the social interaction that is a vital part of sports. One of the successful athletes was Walter William Francis, a Welshman, who won both the running and wrestling championships.Organized sport for persons with physical disabilities existed as early as 1911, when the "Cripples Olympiad" was held in the U. Later, events often developed out of rehabilitation programs.
The pioneer of this approach was Sir Ludwig Guttmann of the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in England.
In 1948, while the Olympic Games were being held in London, he organized a sports competition for wheelchair athletes at Stoke Mandeville.
This was the origin of the Stoke Mandeville Games, which evolved into the modern Paralympic Games.
Disabled sports, also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities.
As many disabled sports are based on existing able bodied sports, modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports.
However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in non-disabled sports.
Disability exists in four categories: physical, mental, permanent and temporary.
Organized sport for athletes with a disability is generally divided into three broad disability groups: the deaf, people with physical disabilities, and people with intellectual disabilities.
Each group has a distinct history, organization, competition program, and approach to sport.
Formal international competition in deaf sport began with the 1924 Paris Silent Games, organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds, CISS (The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf).
These games evolved into the modern Deaflympics, governed by the CISS.